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Title: Theodor Reik’s Listening with the Third Ear and the Role of Self-Analysis in Contemporary Psychoanalytic Thinking
Author: Jeremy D. Safran

Excerpt: “Reik argued that many of the more subtle nuances of interpersonal communication are expressed and perceived at unconscious levels, and that only by looking inwards and listening with the third ear (an expression he borrowed from Nietzsche) could the analyst come to really understand his or her patients. Reik emphasized the importance of oscillating back and forth between an internal focus and external focus. With respect to the internal focus, he provides a numerous illuminating clinical examples in which he attends to vague impressions, intuitions, images, associations, and even melodies (e.g., Reik, 1948, 1953, 1956). With respect to the external focus Reik (1948) emphasizes the importance of subtle details in the patient’s manner and style of presentation.”

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